Human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) cannot be maintained in vitro for extended time periods because they rapidly differentiate or die. To extend in vitro culture time, researchers have made attempts to use human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to create feeder layers that mimic the stem cell niche. We have conducted an array of experiments including adipocytes in these feeder layers that inhibit hHSC differentiation and by that prolong stem cell survival in vitro. The amount of CD34(+) cells was quantified using flow cytometry. In a first experiment, feeder layers of undifferentiated hMSCs were compared with feeder layers differentiated toward osteoblasts or adipocytes using minimal medium, showing the highest survival rate where adipocytes were included. The same conclusion was drawn in a second experiment in comparing hMSCs with adipogenic feeder cells, using a culture medium supplemented with a cocktail of hHSC growth factors. In a third experiment, it was shown that direct cell-cell contact is necessary for the supportive effect of the feeder layers. In a fourth and fifth experiment the amount of adipocytes in the feeder layers were varied, and in all experiments a higher amount of adipocytes in the feeder layers showed a less rapid decay of CD34(+) cells at later time points. We therefore concluded that adipocytes assist in suppressing hHSC differentiation and aid in prolonging their survival in vitro.