In Vivo and in Vitro Intragenomic Rearrangement of TT Viruses

Leppik L, Gunst K, Lehtinen M, Dillner J, Streker K, de Villiers EM
Source: J Virol
Publication Date: (2007)
Issue: 81(17): 9346-56
Research Area:
Immunotherapy / Hematology
Cells used in publication:
Species: human
Tissue Origin: kidney
Species: human
Tissue Origin: blood
Species: human
Tissue Origin: blood
Species: human
Tissue Origin:
Species: human
Tissue Origin: blood
Nucleofector® I/II/2b
The in vitro replication of the Torque teno virus (TT virus) tth8 full-length genome and particle formation in a Hodgkin's lymphoma-derived cell line after transfection with cloned viral DNA were demonstrated. Analyses of the transcription patterns of tth8 and tth7 TT virus isolates in a number of lymphoma and T-cell leukemia cell lines indicated differential additional splicing events and intragenomic rearrangement generating open reading frames which could not be deducted from the genomic sequence. We also demonstrated the presence of rearranged TT virus genomes in vivo in sera taken from pregnant mothers whose children later developed childhood leukemia, as well as sera from control mothers. Control experiments using religated cloned genomic tth8 DNA mixed with cellular DNA did not result in such subviral molecules. These subviral isolates ranged from 172 bp to full-length TT virus genomes. Possible in vivo selection for specific rearranged molecules was indicated by the presence of one isolate (561 bp) in 11 serum samples. It remains to be clarified whether selected rearranged subviral components resulting from specific TT virus types may contribute to the initiation of disease. These data demonstrate new features of TT viruses suggesting possible similarities to plant viruses of the family Geminiviridae, as well as raise questions about the documented plurality and diversity of anelloviruses.