Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the United States. Deployment of stents and vascular grafts has been a major therapeutic method for treatment. However, restenosis, incomplete endothelialization, and thrombosis hamper the long term clinical success. As a solution to meet these current challenges, we have developed a native endothelial ECM mimicking self-assembled nanofibrous matrix to serve as a new treatment model. The nanofibrous matrix is formed by self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles (PAs), which contain nitric oxide (NO) donating residues, endothelial cell adhesive ligands composed of YIGSR peptide sequence, and enzyme-mediated degradable sites. NO was successfully released from the nanofibrous matrix rapidly within 48 h, followed by sustained release over period of 30 days. The NO releasing nanofibrous matrix demonstrated a significantly enhanced proliferation of endothelial cells (51+/-3% to 67+/-2%) but reduced proliferation of smooth muscle cells (35+/-2% to 16+/-3%) after 48 h of incubation. There was also a 150-fold decrease in platelet attachment on the NO releasing nanofibrous matrix (470+/-220 platelets/cm(2)) compared to the collagen-I (73+/-22 x 10(3)platelets/cm(2)) coated surface. The nanofibrous matrix has the potential to be applied to various cardiovascular implants as a self-assembled coating, thereby providing a native endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking environment.