The proline-Rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) is a physiological substrate of mTOR complex 1

Oshiro N, Takahashi R, Yoshino KI, Tanimura K, Nakashima A, Eguchi S, Miyamoto T, Hara K, Takehana K, Avruch J, Kikkawa U, Yonezawa K
Source: J Biol Chem
Publication Date: (2007)
Issue: 282(28): 20329-39
Research Area:
Cancer Research/Cell Biology
Cells used in publication:
Species: human
Tissue Origin: kidney
Species: human
Tissue Origin: cervix
Nucleofectorâ„¢ I/II/2b
The proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kilodaltons (PRAS40) was identified as a raptor-binding protein that is phosphorylated directly by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) but not mTORC2 in vitro, predominantly at PRAS40 (Ser(183)). The binding of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 to raptor requires a TOR signaling (TOS) motif, which contains an essential Phe followed by four alternating acidic and small hydrophobic amino acids. PRAS40 binding to raptor was severely inhibited by mutation of PRAS40 (Phe(129) to Ala). Immediately carboxyl-terminal to Phe(129) are two small hydrophobic amino acid followed by two acidic residues. PRAS40 binding to raptor was also abolished by mutation of the major mTORC1 phosphorylation site, Ser(183), to Asp. PRAS40 (Ser(183)) was phosphorylated in intact cells; this phosphorylation was inhibited by rapamycin, by 2-deoxyglucose, and by overexpression of the tuberous sclerosis complex heterodimer. PRAS40 (Ser(183)) phosphorylation was also inhibited reversibly by withdrawal of all or of only the branched chain amino acids; this inhibition was reversed by overexpression of the Rheb GTPase. Overexpressed PRAS40 suppressed the phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 at their rapamycin-sensitive phosphorylation sites, and reciprocally, overexpression of S6K1 or 4E-BP1 suppressed phosphorylation of PRAS40 (Ser(183)) and its binding to raptor. RNA interference-induced depletion of PRAS40 enhanced the amino acid-stimulated phosphorylation of both S6K1 and 4E-BP1. These results establish PRAS40 as a physiological mTORC1 substrate that contains a variant TOS motif. Moreover, they indicate that the ability of raptor to bind endogenous substrates is limiting for the activity of mTORC1 in vivo and is therefore a potential locus of regulation.