p63 is a multi-isoform p53 family member required for epidermal development. Contrasting roles for p63 in either the initial commitment to the stratified epithelial cell fate or in stem cell-based self-renewal have been proposed. To investigate p63 function in a post-developmental context, we used siRNAs directed against p63 to down-regulate p63 expression in regenerating human epidermis. Loss of p63 resulted in severe tissue hypoplasia and inhibited both stratification and differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. Although p63-deficient cells exhibited hypoproliferation, differentiation defects were not due to tissue hypoplasia. Simultaneous p63 and p53 knockdown rescued the cell proliferation defect of p63 knockdown alone but failed to restore differentiation, suggesting that defects in epidermal proliferation and differentiation are mediated via p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. Furthermore, DeltaNp63 isoforms are the main mediators of p63 effects, although TAp63 isoforms may contribute to late differentiation. These data indicate that p63 is required for both the proliferative and differentiation potential of developmentally mature keratinocytes.