Inflammatory lipid mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is a key enzyme in the generation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. Here, we found that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential for LPS-induced cPLA(2) activation and lipid release. Inhibition of TLR4 protein expression by TLR4 small interfering RNA or neutralization of TLR4 by the specific antibody against TLR4/MD2 blocked cPLA(2) phosphorylation and cPLA(2)-hydrolyzed arachidonic acid release. Furthermore, activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway by LPS regulated cPLA(2) activation and lipid release. cPLA(2) phosphorylation and cPLA(2)-hydrolyzed lipid release were significantly impaired when TLR4 adaptor protein, either MyD88 or TRIF, was knocked down in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Similarly, LPS-induced arachidonate release was inhibited in cells transfected with a dominant-negative MyD88 or TRIF construct. Subsequently, cPLA(2) activation could be suppressed by inhibition of the TLR4 adaptor protein-directed p38 and ERK MAPK pathways. These findings suggest that, in LPS-induced inflammation, the TLR4-mediated MyD88- and TRIF-dependent MAPK pathways result in cPLA(2) activation and production of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators.