Topographical cues from the extracellular microenvironment can influence cellular activity including proliferation and differentiation. Information on the effects of material topography on tenogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (human MSCs) is limited. A methodology using the principles of isoelectric focusing has previously been developed in our laboratory to synthesize electrochemically aligned collagen (ELAC) threads that mimics the packing density, alignment and strength of collagen dense connective tissues. In the current study, human MSCs were cultured on ELAC and randomly-oriented collagen threads and the effect of collagen orientation on cell morphology, proliferation and tenogenic differentiation was investigated. The results indicate that higher rates of proliferation were observed on randomly oriented collagen threads compared to ELAC threads. On the other hand, tendon specific markers such as scleraxis, tenomodulin, tenascin-C and collagen-III were significantly increased on ELAC threads compared to randomly oriented collagen threads. Additionally, osteocalcin, a specific marker of bone differentiation was suppressed on ELAC threads. Previous studies have reported that BMP-12 is a key growth factor to induce tenogenic differentiation of human MSCs. To evaluate the synergistic effect of BMP-12 and collagen orientation, human MSCs were cultured on ELAC threads in culture medium supplemented with and without BMP-12. The results revealed that BMP-12 did not have an additional effect on the tenogenic differentiation of human MSCs on ELAC threads. Together, these results suggest that ELAC induces tenogenic differentiation of human MSCs by presenting an aligned and dense collagen substrate, akin to the tendon itself. In conclusion, ELAC has a significant potential to be used as a tendon replacement and in the development of an osteotendinous construct towards the regeneration of bone-tendon interfaces.