Human hepatocyte depletion in the presence of HIV-1 infection in dual reconstituted humanized mice

Dagur RS1, Wang W2, Cheng Y2, Makarov E2, Ganesan M3,4, Suemizu H5, Gebhart CL6, Gorantla S2, Osna N3,4, Poluektova LY1.
Source: Open Biology
Publication Date: ()
Issue: 2:
Cells used in publication:
Hepatocyte, human
Species: human
Tissue Origin: liver


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection impairs liver function, and liver diseases have become a leading cause of morbidity in infected patients. The immunopathology of liver damage caused by HIV-1 remains unclear. We used chimeric mice dually reconstituted with a human immune system and hepatocytes to address the relevance of the model to pathobiology questions related to human hepatocyte survival in the presence of systemic infection. TK-NOG males were transplanted with mismatched human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and hepatocytes, human albumin concentration and the presence of human immune cells in blood were monitored for hepatocytes and immune reconstitution, and mice were infected with HIV-1. HIV-1-infected animals showed a decline in human albumin concentration with a significant reduction in percentage of human hepatocytes compared to uninfected mice. The decrease in human albumin levels correlated with a decline in CD4+ cells in the liver and with an increase in HIV-1 viral load. HIV-1 infection elicited proinflammatory response in the immunological milieu of the liver in HIV-infected mice compared to uninfected animals, as determined by upregulation of IL23, CXCL10 and multiple toll-like receptor expression. The inflammatory reaction associated with HIV-1 infection in vivo could contribute to the depletion and dysfunction of hepatocytes. The dual reconstituted TK-NOG mouse model is a feasible platform to investigate hepatocyte-related HIV-1 immunopathogenesis.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper