Metal-sulfate induced generation of ROS in human brain cells: detection using an isomeric mixture of 5- and 6-carboxy-2\\\',7\\\'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA) as a cell permeant tracer.

Pogue AI, Jones BM, Bhattacharjee S, Percy ME, Zhao Y, Lukiw WJ
Source: Int J Mol Sci
Publication Date: (2012)
Issue: 13(8): 9615-26
Research Area:
Cells used in publication:
Neural progenitor (NHNP), human
Species: human
Tissue Origin: brain
Evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated during the patho-physiological stress of nervous tissue, has been implicated in the etiology of several progressive human neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amylotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this brief communication we used mixed isomers of 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (carboxy-DCFDA; C(25)H(14)C(l2)O(9); MW 529.3), a novel fluorescent indicator, to assess ROS generation within human neuronal-glial (HNG) cells in primary co-culture. We introduced pathological stress using the sulfates of 12 environmentally-, industrially- and agriculturally-relevant divalent and trivalent metals including Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn. In this experimental test system, of all the metal sulfates analyzed, aluminum sulfate showed by far the greatest ability to induce intracellular ROS. These studies indicate the utility of using isomeric mixtures of carboxy-H(2)DCFDA diacetates as novel and highly sensitive, long-lasting, cell-permeant, fluorescein-based tracers for quantifying ROS generation in intact, metabolizing human brain cells, and in analyzing the potential epigenetic contribution of different metal sulfates to ROS-generation and ROS-mediated neurological dysfunction.