A potent and selective cFMS inhibitor regulates the tumor macrophage microenvironment leading to tumor growth inhibition
Wright AD, Willis BS, Gomez A, Boys ML, DeLisle RK, Burgess LE, Munson MC, Kennedy AL, Topalov GT, Zhao Q, Rodriguez ME, Rast B, Rizzi JP, DeWolf WE, Lemieux C, Anderson D, Neale JR, Martinson M, Gross SD, Callejo M, Risom T, Lee PA
Cells used in publication:
Osteoclast precursor (OCP), human
Tissue Origin: bone marrow
Increasing evidence suggests that interactions between tumor cells, stromal cells, macrophages and the extracellular matrix are pivotal to the processes of tumorigenesis, metastasis, and neovascularization. Macrophages within the tumor microenvironment are thought to facilitate cancer progression, making them intriguing targets for therapy. Colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and its receptor, cFMS, play a central role in the development of mononuclear phagocytes, recruitment of macrophages to tumors, and differentiation and function of osteoclasts. We have developed an orally active, selective small-molecule cFMS inhibitor for cFMS. This molecule inhibits cFMS cellular activity (IC50 = 9 nM) in vitro and inhibits cFMS phosphorylation in a transfected cell line grown in nude mice (ED50 = 3 mg/kg). Our compound also inhibits CSF-1-mediated osteoclast differentiation and function (IC50 values of = 4 nM and 58 nM, respectively). To further explore the potential of our selective inhibitor for the treatment of cancer, we evaluated anti-tumor activity in several preclinical models. We first explored the effect on the murine ovarian cancer cell line, ID8. ID8 cells injected intraperitoneally into nude mice form multiple peritoneal tumor deposits and abundant ascites. Macrophage infiltration in the ID8 ascites was markedly lowered in mice treated with a cFMS inhibitor. Using MCF-7, a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line that has been shown to produce M-CSF, a daily oral dose with 100 mg/kg of our inhibitor for 21 days significantly reduced tumor growth and was accompanied by a marked reduction in tumor-associated macrophages. These findings support the potential of a selective inhibitor of cFMS to favorably impact human cancers by modulating tumor-associated macrophage functions.
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