INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow derived cellular therapies are an emerging approach to promoting therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic cardiovascular disease. However, the percentage of regenerative cells in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) is small, and large amounts of BMMNCs are required. Ixmyelocel-T, an expanded autologous multicellular therapy, is manufactured from a small sample of bone marrow aspirate. Ixmyelocel-T contains expanded populations of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and M2-like macrophages, as well as many of the CD45+ cells found in the bone marrow. It is hypothesized that this expanded multi-cellular therapy would induce angiogenesis and endothelial repair. METHODS: A rat model of hind limb ischemia was used to determine the effects of ixmyelocel-T on blood flow recovery. To further determine the effects on endothelial cells, ixmyelocel-T was co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in non-contacting Transwell® inserts. RESULTS: Co-culture of HUVECs with ixmyelocel-T resulted secretion of a variety of pro-angiogenic factors. HUVECs stimulated by ixmyelocel-T exhibited enhanced migration, proliferation, and branch formation. Ixmyelocel-T co-culture also resulted in increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production. In tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa)-stimulated HUVECs, ixmyelocel-T co-culture decreased apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation, increased super oxide dismutase activity, and decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) activation. Treatment with ixmyelocel-T in a rat model of hind limb ischemia resulted in significantly increased blood flow perfusion and capillary density, gene expression and plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, plasma nitrates, plasma platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and significantly decreased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates that ixmyelocel-T interacts with endothelial cells in a paracrine manner, resulting in angiogenesis and endothelial protection. This data suggests that ixmyelocel-T could be useful for promoting of angiogenesis and tissue repair in ischemic cardiovascular diseases. In conclusion, ixmyelocel-T therapy may provide a new aspect of therapeutic angiogenesis in this patient population where expanded populations of regenerative cells might be required.