Overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of anaemia of inflammation. TNFa suppresses erythroid colony formation via both direct and indirect effects on haematopoietic progenitors, often involving activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B signalling resulting in downregulation of transcription factors critical for erythropoiesis. There is a dearth of effective and safe therapies for many patients with inflammatory anaemia. Resveratrol is a flavanol found in red wine grapes that possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties, but studies of its impact on human erythropoiesis have proven contradictory. We investigated whether resveratrol ameliorates TNFa-mediated suppression of erythropoiesis in human CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitors. We found that resveratrol partially reverses the erythroid suppressive effects of TNFa, leading to significant recovery in burst forming unit-erythroid colony formation in human CD34(+) cells. CD34(+) cells pre-incubated with resveratrol for 72 h in the presence of TNFa inhibited NF-?B activation via decreased NF-?B nuclear localization without altering total NF-?B protein levels and independent of I?B degradation. Resveratrol also significantly restored the baseline expression of erythroid transcription factors NFE2 and the GATA1/GATA2 ratio in CD34(+) cells treated with TNFa. In conclusion, resveratrol may inhibit TNFa-mediated NF-?B activation and promote erythropoiesis in primary human CD34(+) cells.