However, the precise regulatory mechanisms involved in COX-2 induction during KSHV infection have never been explored. Here, we identified cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of COX-2 upon KSHV de novo infection. Promoter analysis using human COX-2 promoter deletion and mutation reporter constructs revealed that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE) modulate KSHV-mediated transcriptional regulation of COX-2. Along with multiple KSHV-induced signaling pathways, infection-induced prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) also augmented COX-2 transcription. Infection of endothelial cells markedly induced COX-2 expression via a cyclosporine A-sensitive, calcineurin/NFAT-dependent pathway. KSHV infection increased intracellular cAMP levels and activated protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylated the CRE-binding protein (CREB) at serine 133, which probably led to interaction with CRE in the COX-2 promoter, thereby enhancing COX-2 transcription. PKA selective inhibitor H-89 pretreatment strongly inhibited CREB serine 133, indicating the involvement of a cAMP-PKA-CREB-CRE loop in COX-2 transcriptional regulation. In contrast to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C, inhibition of FAK and Src effectively reduced KSHV infection-induced COX-2 transcription and protein levels. Collectively, our study indicates that mediation of COX-2 transcription upon KSHV infection is a paradigm of a complex regulatory milieu involving the interplay of multiple signal cascades and transcription factors. Intervention at each step of COX-2/PGE(2) induction can be used as a potential therapeutic target to treat KSHV-associated neoplasm and control inflammatory sequels of KSHV infection.