Exocytosis of CTLA-4 Is Dependent on Phospholipase D and ADP Ribosylation Factor-1 and Stimulated during Activation of Regulatory T Cells

Authors:
Mead KI, Zheng Y, Manzotti CN, Perry LC, Liu MK, Burke F, Powner DJ, Wakelam MJ and Sansom DM
In:
Source: J Immunol
Publication Date: (2005)
Issue: 174(8): 4803-4811
Research Area:
Immunotherapy / Hematology
Cells used in publication:
293
Species: human
Tissue Origin: kidney
Platform:
Nucleofectorâ„¢ I/II/2b
Abstract
CTLA-4 is an essential protein in the regulation of T cell responses that interacts with two ligands found on the surface of APCs (CD80 and CD86). CTLA-4 is itself poorly expressed on the T cell surface and is predominantly localized to intracellular compartments. We have studied the mechanisms involved in the delivery of CTLA-4 to the cell surface using a model Chinese hamster ovary cell system and compared this with activated and regulatory human T cells. We have shown that expression of CTLA-4 at the plasma membrane (PM) is controlled by exocytosis of CTLA-4-containing vesicles and followed by rapid endocytosis. Using selective inhibitors and dominant negative mutants, we have shown that exocytosis of CTLA-4 is dependent on the activity of the GTPase ADP ribosylation factor-1 and on phospholipase D activity. CTLA-4 was identified in a perinuclear compartment overlapping with the cis-Golgi marker GM-130 but did not colocalize strongly with lysosomal markers such as CD63 and lysosome-associated membrane protein. In regulatory T cells, activation of phospholipase D was sufficient to trigger release of CTLA-4 to the PM but did not inhibit endocytosis. Taken together, these data suggest that CTLA-4 may be stored in a specialized compartment in regulatory T cells that can be triggered rapidly for deployment to the PM in a phospholipase D- and ADP ribosylation factor-1-dependent manner.