Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic colitis. However, it remains unknown how macrophages residing in the colonic lamina propria are regulated. We characterized colonic lamina proprial CD11b-positive cells (CLPMphi). CLPMphi of wild-type mice, but not IL-10-deficient mice, displayed hyporesponsiveness to TLR stimulation in terms of cytokine production and costimulatory molecule expression. We compared CLPMphi gene expression profiles of wild-type mice with IL-10-deficient mice, and identified genes that are selectively expressed in wild-type CLPMphi. These genes included nuclear IkappaB proteins such as Bcl-3 and IkappaBNS. Because Bcl-3 has been shown to specifically inhibit LPS-induced TNF-alpha production, we analyzed the role of IkappaBNS in macrophages. Lentiviral introduction of IkappaBNS resulted in impaired LPS-induced IL-6 production, but not TNF-alpha production in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. IkappaBNS expression led to constitutive and intense DNA binding of NF-kappaB p50/p50 homodimers. IkappaBNS was recruited to the IL-6 promoter, but not to the TNF-alpha promoter, together with p50. Furthermore, small interference RNA-mediated reduction in IkappaBNS expression in RAW264.7 cells resulted in increased LPS-induced production of IL-6, but not TNF-alpha. Thus, IkappaBNS selectively suppresses LPS-induced IL-6 production in macrophages. This study established that nuclear IkappaB proteins differentially regulate LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages.