We determined protein levels and subcellular distribution of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) in human prostate tissues using tissue microarrays and analyzed redox changes in Trx1 in the nucleus and cytoplasm in cell culture models with a redox Western blot technique. We demonstrated increased nuclear Trx1 levels in high- versus low-grade human prostate cancers. Despite increased protein levels, the oxidized forms of nuclear Trx1 were higher in prostate cancer cell lines compared to their benign counterparts, suggesting that nuclear redox imbalance occurred selectively in cancer cells. A growth-stimulating dose of androgen caused transient oxidation of Trx1 in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells only, suggesting a loss of both androgen- and redox-signaling mechanisms during cancer progression. Androgen-independent PC3 cells showed a significant increase in nuclear and cytoplasmic Trx1 protein levels, but a significant decrease in total Trx activity. Trx1 redox state and activity correlated with the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to pro-oxidant agents, and downregulation of Trx1 sensitized cancer cells to these agents. Our findings suggest that loss of Trx function because of oxidation and corresponding redox imbalance may play important roles in prostate cancer progression and response to therapies; and Trx1 may serve as a biomarker of subcellular redox imbalance in prostate cancer.