Respiratory epithelial cells are one of main targets for infections caused by influenza viruses. Recently, the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLRs) in normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells infected with seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal H3N2, or highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus were studied to understand the pathogenesis and early immune responses. The cells were productively infected with the viruses. Among the inflammatory cytokines tested, interleukin (IL)-8 was predominantly induced in virus-infected cells. Among the chemokines tested, interferon-?-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and growth-related oncogene-a (GRO-a) were predominantly induced in virus-infected cells. TLR-5 was predominantly induced in cells infected with seasonal H1N1, pandemic H1N1, or H5N1 influenza virus, and TLR-3 was predominantly induced in cells infected with seasonal H3N2 influenza virus. Taken together, the results suggest that IL-8, IP-10, and GRO-a are predominantly induced in respiratory epithelial cells infected with influenza A viruses, and that TLR-5 and TLR-3 are involved in the stimulation of virus-infected respiratory epithelial cells.