Mutation of Y179 on phospholipase D2 (PLD2) upregulates DNA synthesis in a PI3K-and Akt-dependent manner

Authors:
Di Fulvio M, Frondorf K, Gomez-Cambronero J
In:
Source: Cell Signal
Publication Date: (2008)
Issue: 20(1): 176-85
Research Area:
Cancer Research/Cell Biology
Immunotherapy / Hematology
Cells used in publication:
RAW 264.7
Species: mouse
Tissue Origin: blood
Platform:
Nucleofectorâ„¢ I/II/2b
Abstract
Phospholipase D2 (PLD2), one of the two mammalian members of the PLD family, has been implicated in cell proliferation, transformation, tumor progression and survival. However, as precise mechanistic details are still unknown, we investigated here if the PLD2 isoform would signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Transient expression of PLD2 in COS7 cells with either the WT or with a Y179F mutant, resulted in an increased basal phosphorylation of AKT in residues T308 and S473, in a PI3K-dependent manner. Transfection of PLD2-Y179F (but not the wild type) caused an increased (>2-fold) DNA synthesis even in the absence of extracellular stimuli. Other signaling mechanisms downstream such PLD/PI3K dependence (that might lead to DNA synthesis regulation) were further studied. PLD2-Y179F caused an increase in phosphorylation of p42/p44 ERK and in the expression of G0/G1 phase transition markers (p21 CIP, PCNA), and these effects, too, were dependent on PI3K. Interestingly, Akt, once activated induced the phosphorylation of PLD2 on residue T175, an effect that was inhibited by LY296004. Lastly, if PLD2-Y179F is further mutated in residue K758 (PLD2 Y179F-K758R), which renders inactive a catalytic site, DNA synthesis is then abrogated, indicating that the activity of the enzyme (i.e. synthesis of PA) is necessary for the observed effects. In conclusion, the unavailability of residue Y179 on PLD2 to become phosphorylated leads to an augmentation of DNA synthesis concomitantly with MEK and AKT phosphorylation, in a process that is dependent on PI3K and independent of any extracellular stimuli. This might be critical for the maintenance of the PLD2-regulated proliferative status.