Signaling mechanism of HIV-1 gp120 and virion-induced IL-1beta release in primary human macrophages

Cheung R, Ravyn V, Wang L, Ptasznik A, Collman RG
Source: J Immunol
Publication Date: (2008)
Issue: 180(10): 6675-84
Research Area:
Immunotherapy / Hematology
Cells used in publication:
Macrophage, human
Species: human
Tissue Origin: blood
Nucleofector® I/II/2b
HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces, independently of infection, the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1beta from macrophages, that are implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia. However, the signal transduction pathways involved have not been fully defined. Previously, our laboratory reported that soluble gp120 activates multiple protein kinases in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, including the Src family kinase Lyn, PI3K, and the focal adhesion-related proline-rich tyrosine kinase Pyk2. In this study we showed that gp120 induces IL-1beta release from macrophages in a time- and concentration-dependent manner through binding to the chemokine receptor CCR5 and coupling to G(i)alpha protein. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNA gene knockdown, we demonstrated that concomitant activation of Lyn, Pyk2, and class IA PI3K are required for gp120-induced IL-1beta production. By coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, we showed that CCR5 activation by gp120 triggered the assembly of a signaling complex involving endogenous Lyn, PI3K, and Pyk2 and is associated with PI3K and Pyk2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the membrane where they colocalized with Lyn. Finally, we demonstrated that virion-associated gp120 induced similar response, as structurally intact whole virions also triggered IL-1beta release and re-localization of PI3K and Pyk2. This study identifies a novel signaling mechanism for HIV-1-induced IL-1beta production by primary human macrophages that may be involved in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia.