We reconstituted type I collagen nanofibers prepared by electrospin technology and examined the morphology, growth, adhesion, cell motility, and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on three nano-sized diameters (50-200, 200-500, and 500-1,000 nm). Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that cells on the nanofibers had a more polygonal and flattened cell morphology. MTS (3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-5-[3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl]-2-[4-sul-fophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium compound) assay demonstrated that the MSCs grown on 500-1,000-nm nanofibers had significantly higher cell viability than the tissue culture polystyrene control. A decreased amount of focal adhesion formation was apparent in which quantifiable staining area of the cytoplasmic protein vinculin for the 200-500-nm nanofibers was 39% less compared with control, whereas the area of quantifiable vinculin staining was 45% less for both the 200-500-nm and 500-1,000-nm nanofibers. The distances of cell migration were quantified on green fluorescent protein-nucleofected cells and was 56.7%, 37.3%, and 46.3% for 50-200, 200-500, and 500-1,000 nm, respectively, compared with those on the control. Alkaline phosphatase activity demonstrated no differences after 12 days of osteogenic differentiation, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed comparable osteogenic gene expression of osteocalcin, osteonectin, and ostepontin between cells differentiated on polystyrene and nanofiber surfaces. Moreover, single-cell RT-PCR of type I collagen gene expression demonstrated higher expression on cells seeded on the nanofibers. Therefore, type I collagen nanofibers support the growth of MSCs without compromising their osteogenic differentiation capability and can be used as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering to facilitate intramembranous bone formation. Further efforts are necessary to enhance their biomimetic properties.