Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is mediated in part by glucose metabolism-driven increases in ATP/ADP ratio, but by-products of mitochondrial glucose metabolism also play an important role. Here we investigate the role of the mitochondrial citrate/isocitrate carrier (CIC) in regulation of GSIS. Inhibition of CIC activity in INS-1-derived 832/13 cells or primary rat islets by the substrate analogue 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylate (BTC) resulted in potent inhibition of GSIS, involving both first and second phase secretion. A recombinant adenovirus containing a CIC-specific siRNA (Ad-siCIC) dose-dependently reduced CIC expression in 832/13 cells and caused parallel inhibitory effects on citrate accumulation in the cytosol. Ad-siCIC treatment did not affect glucose utilization, glucose oxidation, or ATP/ADP ratio but did inhibit glucose incorporation into fatty acids and glucose-induced increases in NADPH/NADP(+) ratio relative to cells treated with a control siRNA virus (Ad-siControl). Ad-siCIC also inhibited GSIS in 832/13 cells, whereas overexpression of CIC enhanced GSIS and raised cytosolic citrate levels. In normal rat islets, Ad-siCIC treatment also suppressed CIC mRNA levels and inhibited GSIS. We conclude that export of citrate and/or isocitrate from the mitochondria to the cytosol is an important step in control of GSIS.