Lentiviral Nef proteins are key factors for pathogenesis and are known to downregulate functionally important molecules, including CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), from the surfaces of infected cells. Recently, we demonstrated that Nef reduces cell surface levels of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry coreceptor CCR5 (N. Michel, I. Allespach, S. Venzke, O. T. Fackler, and O. T. Keppler, Curr. Biol. 15:714-723, 2005). Here, we report that Nef downregulates the second major HIV-1 coreceptor, CXCR4, from the surfaces of HIV-infected primary CD4 T lymphocytes with efficiencies comparable to those of the natural CXCR4 ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha. Analysis of a panel of mutants of HIV-1(SF2) Nef revealed that the viral protein utilized the same signature motifs for downmodulation of CXCR4 and MHC-I, including the proline-rich motif P(73)P(76)P(79)P(82) and the acidic cluster motif E(66)E(67)E(68)E(69.) Expression of wild-type Nef, but not of specific Nef mutants, resulted in a perinuclear accumulation of the coreceptor. Remarkably, the carboxy terminus of CXCR4, which harbors the classical motifs critical for basal and ligand-induced receptor endocytosis, was dispensable for the Nef-mediated reduction of surface exposure. Functionally, the ability of Nef to simultaneously downmodulate CXCR4 and CD4 correlated with maximum-level protection of Nef-expressing target cells from fusion with cells exposing X4 HIV-1 envelopes. Furthermore, the Nef-mediated downregulation of CXCR4 alone on target T lymphocytes was sufficient to diminish cells' susceptibility to X4 HIV-1 virions at the entry step. The downregulation of chemokine coreceptors is a conserved activity of Nef to modulate infected cells, an important functional consequence of which is an enhanced resistance to HIV superinfection.