Identification of potential target genes for RFX4_v3, a transcription factor critical for brain development

Authors:
Zhang D, Stumpo DJ, Graves JP, Degraff LM, Grissom SF, Collins JB, Li L, Zeldin DC, Blackshear PJ
In:
Source: J Neurochem
Publication Date: (2006)
Issue: 98(3): 860-75
Research Area:
Cancer Research/Cell Biology
Neurobiology
Cells used in publication:
C2C12
Species: mouse
Tissue Origin: skeletal muscle
Platform:
Nucleofectorâ„¢ I/II/2b
Abstract
Regulatory factor X4 variant transcript 3 (Rfx4_v3) gene disruption in mice demonstrated that interruption of a single allele (heterozygous, +/-) prevented formation of the subcommissural organ, resulting in congenital hydrocephalus, while interruption of two alleles (homozygous, -/-) caused fatal failure of dorsal midline brain structure formation. To identify potential target genes for RFX4_v3, we used microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in Rfx4_v3-deficient mouse brains at embryonic day 10.5, before gross structural changes were apparent. Of 109 differentially expressed transcripts, 24 were chosen for validation and 22 were confirmed by real-time PCR. Many validated genes encoded critical proteins involved in brain morphogenesis, such as the signaling components in the Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and retinoic acid (RA) pathways. Cx3cl1, a CX3C-type chemokine gene that is highly expressed in brain, was down-regulated in the Rfx4_v3-null mice. Both human and mouse Cx3cl1 proximal promoters contained highly conserved X-boxes, known cis-acting elements for RFX protein binding. Using the Cx3cl1 promoter as an example of a target gene, we demonstrated direct binding of RFX4_v3 to the Cx3cl1 promoter, and trans-acting activity of RFX4_v3 protein to stimulate gene expression. These data suggest that RFX4_v3 may act upstream of critical signaling pathways in the process of brain development.