Conserved structural motifs on pathogens trigger pattern recognition receptors present on APCs such as dendritic cells (DCs). An important class of such receptors is the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR signaling triggers a cascade of events in DCs that includes modified chemokine and cytokine production, altered chemokine receptor expression, and changes in signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One mechanism by which TLR signaling could modify GPCR signaling is by altering the expression of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. In this study, we show that human monocyte-derived DCs constitutively express significant amounts of RGS2, RGS10, RGS14, RGS18, and RGS19, and much lower levels of RGS3 and RGS13. Engagement of TLR3 or TLR4 on monocyte-derived DCs induces RGS16 and RGS20, markedly increases RGS1 expression, and potently down-regulates RGS18 and RGS14 without modifying other RGS proteins. A similar pattern of Rgs protein expression occurred in immature bone marrow-derived mouse DCs stimulated to mature via TLR4 signaling. The changes in RGS18 and RGS1 expression are likely important for DC function, because both proteins inhibit G alpha(i)- and G alpha(q)-mediated signaling and can reduce CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)19-, or CCL21-induced cell migration. Providing additional evidence, bone marrow-derived DCs from Rgs1(-/-) mice have a heightened migratory response to both CXCL12 and CCL19 when compared with similar DCs prepared from wild-type mice. These results indicate that the level and functional status of RGS proteins in DCs significantly impact their response to GPCR ligands such as chemokines.