Since the establishment of embryonic stem (ES) cells and the identification of tissue-specific stem cells, researchers have made great strides in the analysis of the natural biology of such stem cells for the development of therapeutic applications. Specifically, ES cells are capable of differentiating into all of the cell types that constitute the whole body. Thus, ES cell research promises new type of treatments and possible cures for a variety of debilitating diseases and injuries. The potential medical benefits obtained from stem cell technology are compelling and stem cell research sees a bright future. Control of the growth and differentiation of stem cells is a critical tool in the fields of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. Toward such a goal, we present here an overview of gene delivery in ES cells, covering the following topics: significance of gene delivery in ES cells, stable versus transient gene delivery, cytotoxicity, suspension versus adherent cells, expertise, time, cost, viral vectors for gene transduction (lentiviruses, adenoviruses, and adeno-associated viruses, chemical methods for gene delivery, and mechanical or physical gene delivery methods (electroporation, nucleofection, microinjection, and nuclear transfer).