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4665 results sorted by

Loss of Siglec expression on T lymphocytes during human evolution

We report here that human T cells give much stronger proliferative responses to specific activation via the T cell receptor (TCR) than those from chimpanzees, our closest evolutionary relatives. Nonspecific activation using phytohemagglutinin was...
Authors: Nguyen DH, Hurtado-Ziola N, Gagneux P, Varki A

Reduction in ABCG1 in type 2 diabetic mice increases macrophage foam cell formation

Atherosclerosis development is accelerated several-fold in patients with Type 2 diabetes. In the initial stages of disease, monocytes transmigrate into the subendothelial space and differentiate into foam cells. Scavenger receptors and ATP Binding...
Authors: Mauldin JP, Srinivasan S, Mulya A, Gebre A, Parks JS, Daugherty A, Hedrick CC

The Fat1 cadherin integrates vascular smooth muscle cell growth and migration signals

The significance of cadherin superfamily proteins in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) biology is undefined. Here we describe recent studies of the Fat1 protocadherin. Fat1 expression in VSMCs increases significantly after arterial injury or growth...
Authors: Hou R, Liu L, Anees S, Hiroyasu S, Sibinga NE

Hematopoiesis controlled by distinct TIF1gamma and Smad4 branches of the TGFbeta pathway

Tissue homeostasis in mammals relies on powerful cytostatic and differentiation signals delivered by the cytokine TGFbeta and relayed within the cell via the activation of Smad transcription factors. Formation of transcription regulatory complexes by...
Authors: He W, Dorn DC, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P, Moore MA, Massague J

Preclinical Assessment of FHIT Gene Replacement Therapy in Human Leukemia Using a Chimeric Adenovirus, Ad5/F35

PURPOSE: Expression of the FHIT protein is lost or reduced in most solid tumors and a significant fraction of hematopoietic malignancies. Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) virus or adeno-associated viral vectors have been used to study the tumor suppressor function...
Authors: Pichiorri F, Trapasso F, Palumbo T, Aqeilan RI, Drusco A, Blaser BW, Iliopoulos D, Caligiuri MA,...

Dysregulated T cell expression of TIM3 in multiple sclerosis

T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-containing molecule (TIM)3 is a T helper cell (Th)1-associated cell surface molecule that regulates Th1 responses and promotes tolerance in mice, but its expression and function in human T cells is unknown. We...
Authors: Koguchi K, Anderson DE, Yang L, O'connor KC, Kuchroo VK, Hafler DA

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases regulate human aortic smooth muscle cell migration during in vitro aging

As a direct correlation between aging and the risk of onset of vascular disease has been universally accepted, we prepared an in vitro aging model consisting in sequential passages of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) in order to evaluate the...
Authors: Vigetti D, Moretto P, Viola M, Genasetti A, Rizzi M, Karousou E, Pallotti F, De Luca G, Passi A

Nitric oxide activation of Erk1/2 regulates the stability and translation of mRNA transcripts containing CU-rich elements

Nitric oxide (NO*) can stabilize mRNA by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here, transcript stabilization by NO* was investigated in human THP-1 cells using microarrays. After LPS pre-stimulation, cells were treated with...
Authors: Wang S, Zhang J, Theel S, Barb JJ, Munson PJ, Danner RL

Alpha-2C-adrenergic receptors exhibit enhanced surface expression and signaling upon association with beta-2-adrenergic receptors

The alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2C)AR) is known to be poorly trafficked to the cell surface when expressed in a variety of cell types. We tested the hypothesis that the surface expression and signaling of alpha(2C)AR might be enhanced by...
Authors: Prinster SC, Holmqvist TG, Hall RA

Direct involvement of the small GTPase Rac in activation of the superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase Nox1

Activation of the non-phagocytic superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase Nox1, complexed with p22phox at the membrane, requires its regulatory soluble proteins Noxo1 and Noxa1. However the role of the small GTPase Rac remained to be clarified. Here we...
Authors: Miyano K, Ueno N, Takeya R, Sumimoto H