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Negative regulation of Toll-like-receptor signaling by IRF-4

The recognition of microbial components by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is an event central to the activation of innate and adaptive immune systems. TLR activation triggers the induction of downstream target genes, wherein the TLR-interacting adaptor...
Authors: Negishi H, Ohba Y, Yanai H, Takaoka A, Honma K, Yui K, Matsuyama T, Taniguchi T and Honda K

Apoptosis Induced by a New Member of Saponin Family Is Mediated through Caspase-8-Dependent Cleavage of Bcl-2

OSW-1 is a new member of cholestane saponin family, which is cytotoxic against many types of malignant cells. The present works showed that OSW-1 induced apoptosis of mammalian cells in a concentration- and time- dependent manner. The drug-induced...
Authors: Zhu J, Xiong L, Yu B and Wu J

The induction of matrix metalloproteinase and cytokine expression in synovial fibroblasts stimulated with immune cell microparticles

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destruction of cartilage and bone that is mediated by synovial fibroblasts. To determine the mechanisms by which these cells are activated to produce matrix metalloproteinases...
Authors: Distler JH, Jungel A, Huber LC, Seemayer CA, Reich CF 3rd, Gay RE, Michel BA, Fontana A, Gay S,...

Dishevelled (Dvl-2) activates canonical Wnt signalling in the absence of cytoplasmic puncta

Dishevelled family proteins are multidomain intracellular transducers of Wnt signals. Ectopically expressed mammalian Dishevelled 2 (Dvl-2) activates downstream signalling and localises to cytoplasmic puncta. It has been suggested that these...
Authors: Smalley MJ, Signoret N, Robertson D, Tilley A, Hann A, Ewan K, Ding Y, Paterson H and Dale TC

The inositol phosphatase SHIP-2 down-regulates FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages independently of SHIP-1

FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles is a complex process involving the activation of multiple signaling enzymes and is regulated by the inositol phosphatases PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SHIP-1...
Authors: Ai J, Maturu A, Johnson W, Wang Y, Marsh CB and Tridandapani S

Inhibition of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Signaling and Microglial Proliferation by Anti-CD45RO: Role of Hck Tyrosine Kinase and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt

Increasing evidence suggests that CD45, a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, is an important modulator of macrophage activation. Microglia, resident brain macrophages, express CD45 and proliferate under pathologic conditions. In this study,...
Authors: Suh HS, Kim MO and Lee SC

The PDZ binding motif of HTLV-1 tax promotes virus mediated T-cell proliferation in vitro and persistence in vivo

HTLV-1 cellular transformation and disease induction is dependent on expression of the viral Tax oncoprotein. PDZ is a modular protein interaction domain used in organizing signaling complexes in eukaryotic cells through recognition of a specific...
Authors: Xie L, Yamamoto B, Haoudi A, Semmes OJ and Green PL

Transcriptional repressor DREAM regulates T-lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine gene expression

Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM) is a Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional repressor expressed in the brain, thyroid gland and thymus. Here, we analyzed the function of DREAM and the related protein KChIP-2 in the immune system...
Authors: Savignac M, Pintado B, Gutierrez-Adan A, Palczewska M, Mellstrom B and Naranjo JR

EBV-Induced Gene 3 Transcription Is Induced by TLR Signaling in Primary Dendritic Cells via NF-(kappa)B Activation

The EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3) is expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and part of the cytokine IL-27 that controls Th cell development. However, its regulated expression in DCs is poorly understood. In the present study we demonstrate that EBI3 is...
Authors: Wirtz S, Becker C, Fantini MC, Nieuwenhuis EE, Tubbe I, Galle PR, Schild HJ, Birkenbach M, Blumberg...

Detection of functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms that affect apoptosis

Human EBV-transformed B lymphocyte cell lines (LCLs) were used to measure the apoptotic response of individuals to gamma radiation. The responses form a normal distribution around a median of 35.5% apoptosis with a range of 12-58%. This heterogeneous...
Authors: Harris SL, Gil G, Robins H, Hu W, Hirshfield K, Bond E, Bond G and Levine AJ