Hyaluronan (HA) deposition is often correlated with mucosal inflammatory responses, where HA mediates both protective and pathological responses. By modifying the HA matrix, Tnfip6 (TNF-a-induced protein-6; also known as TSG-6 (TNF-stimulated gene-6)) is thought to potentiate anti-inflammatory and anti-plasmin effects that are inhibitory to leukocyte extravasation. In this study, we examined the role of endogenous TSG-6 in the pathophysiological responses associated with acute allergic pulmonary inflammation. Compared with wild-type littermate controls, TSG-6(-/-) mice exhibited attenuated inflammation marked by a significant decrease in pulmonary HA concentrations measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue. Interestingly, despite the equivalent induction of both humoral and cellular Th2 immunity and the comparable levels of cytokines and chemokines typically associated with eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, airway eosinophilia was significantly decreased in TSG-6(-/-) mice. Most importantly, contrary to their counterpart wild-type littermates, TSG-6(-/-) mice were resistant to the induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and manifested improved lung mechanics in response to methacholine challenge. Our study demonstrates that endogenous TSG-6 is dispensable for the induction of Th2 immunity but is essential for the robust increase in pulmonary HA deposition, propagation of acute eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, and development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Thus, TSG-6 is implicated in the experimental murine model of allergic pulmonary inflammation and is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.