Genome-wide approaches reveal functional interleukin-4-inducible STAT6 binding to the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 promoter

Tozawa H, Kanki Y, Suehiro J, Tsutsumi S, Kohro T, Wada Y, Aburatani H, Aird WC, Kodama T, Minami T
Source: Mol Cell Biol
Publication Date: (2011)
Issue: 31(11): 2196-209
Research Area:
Basic Research
Cells used in publication:
Endothelial, umbilical vein, human (HUVEC)
Species: human
Tissue Origin: vein
Endothelial cell activation and dysfunction underlie many vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis and inflammation. Here, we show that interleukin-4 (IL-4) markedly induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), both in cultured endothelial cells and in the intact endothelium in mice. Combined treatment with IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) resulted in further, sustained induction of VCAM-1 expression. IL-4-mediated induction of VCAM-1 and secondary monocyte adhesion was predominantly regulated by the transcription factor STAT6. Genome-wide survey of IL-4-mediated STAT6 binding from sequential chromatin-immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing [ChIP-seq]) in endothelial cells revealed regions of transient and sustained transcription factor binding. Through the combination of DNA microarrays and ChIP-seq at the same time points, the majority of IL-4-responsive genes were shown to be STAT6 dependent and associated with direct STAT6 binding to their promoter. IL-4-mediated stable binding of STAT6 led to sustained target gene expression. Moreover, our strategy led to the identification of a novel functionally important STAT6 binding site within 16 kb upstream of the VCAM-1 gene. Taken together, these findings support a critical role for STAT6 in mediating IL-4 signal transduction in endothelial cells. Identification of a novel IL-4-mediated VCAM-1 enhancer may provide a foundation for targeted therapy in vascular disease.