S100B is a calcium-binding protein with both extracellular and intracellular regulatory activities in the mammalian brain. We have identified a novel interaction between S100B and the dopamine D(2) receptor. Our results also suggest that the binding of S100B to the dopamine D(2) receptor enhances receptor signaling. This conclusion is based on the following observations: 1) S100B and the third cytoplasmic loop of the dopamine D(2) receptor interact in a bacterial two-hybrid system and in a poly-histidine pull-down assay; 2) immunoprecipitation of the D(2) receptor also precipitates FLAG-S100B from human embryonic kidney 293 cell homogenates and endogenous S100B from rat neostriatal homogenates; 3) S100B immunoreactivity was detected in cultured neostriatal neurons expressing the D(2) receptor; 4) a putative S100B binding motif is located at residues 233 to 240 of the D(2) receptor, toward the amino terminus of the third cytoplasmic loop. D(3)-IC3, which does not bind S100B, does not contain this motif; and 5) coexpression of S100B in D(2) receptor-expressing 293 cells selectively increased D(2) receptor stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and inhibition of adenylate cyclase.