Frequent epigenetic inactivation of DICKKOPF family genes in human gastrointestinal tumors

Sato H, Suzuki H, Toyota M, Nojima M, Maruyama R, Sasaki S, Takagi H, Sogabe Y, Sasaki Y, Idogawa M, Sonoda T, Mori M, Imai K, Tokino T, Shinomura Y
Source: Carcinogenesis
Publication Date: (2007)
Issue: 28(12): 2459-66
Research Area:
Cancer Research/Cell Biology
Cells used in publication:
Species: human
Tissue Origin: colon
Species: human
Tissue Origin: colon
Nucleofectorâ„¢ I/II/2b
Activation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in tumorigenesis, and epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonist genes has been detected in various cancers. In the present study, we examined the expression and methylation of DICKKOPF (DKK) family genes in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. We found that all known DKK genes are frequently silenced in CRC cells (DKK1, 3/9, 33%; DKK2, 8/9, 89%; DKK3, 5/9, 56%; DKK4, 5/9, 56%), but not in normal colon mucosa. DKK1, -2 and -3 have 5' CpG islands, and show an inverse relation between expression and methylation. DKK methylation also was frequently observed in gastric cancer (GC) cell lines (DKK1, 6/16, 38%; DKK2, 15/16, 94%; DKK3, 10/16, 63%), but was seen less frequently in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pancreatic cancer cell lines. DKKs also were frequently methylated in primary CRCs (DKK1, 7/58, 12%; DKK2, 45/58, 78%; DKK3, 12/58, 21%) and GCs (DKK1, 15/31, 48%; DKK2, 26/31, 84%; DKK3, 12/31, 39%). Against a background of CTNNB1 or APC mutations, Dkks were less effective inhibitors of Wnt signaling than SFRPs, though overexpression of Dkks suppressed colony formation of CRC cells with such mutations. Our results demonstrate that DKKs are frequent targets of epigenetic silencing in gastrointestinal tumors, and that loss of DKKs may facilitate tumorigenesis through beta-catenin/TCF independent mechanisms.