Kalirin/Trio rho Guanine nucleotide exchange factors regulate a novel step in secretory granule maturation

Authors:
Ferraro F, Ma XM, Sobota JA, Eipper BA, Mains RE
In:
Source: Mol Biol Cell
Publication Date: (2007)
Issue: 18(12): 4813-25
Research Area:
Neurobiology
Cells used in publication:
AtT20
Species: mouse
Tissue Origin: pituitary gland
Platform:
Nucleofectorâ„¢ I/II/2b
Abstract
The molecular mechanisms involved in the maturation of secretory granules, organelles that store hormones and neuropeptides, are poorly understood. As granule content proteins are processed, the composition of granule membranes changes, yielding constitutive-like secretion of immature content proteins and producing secretagogue-responsive mature granules. Constitutive-like secretion was not previously recognized as a process subject to regulation. We show that Kalirin and Trio, homologous Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which interact with a secretory granule resident protein, modulate cargo secretion from immature granules. Some of the Kalirin and Trio isoforms expressed in neuroendocrine cells colocalize with immature granules. Overexpression of their N-terminal GEF domain (GEF1) enhances secretion from immature granules, depleting cells of secretory cargo in the absence of secretagogue. This response requires GEF1 activity and is mimicked by Kalirin/Trio substrates Rac1 and RhoG. Accordingly, selective pharmacological inhibition of endogenous GEF1 activity decreases secretagogue-independent release of hormone precursors, accumulating product peptide in mature secretory granules. Kalirin/Trio modulation of cargo secretion from immature granules provides secretory cells with an extra layer of control over the sets of peptides released. Control of this step enhances the range of physiological responses that can be elicited, whereas lack of control could have pathological consequences.