Direct Repression of Cyclin D1 by SIP1 Attenuates Cell Cycle Progression in Cells Undergoing an Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition
Mejlvang J, Kriajevska M, Vandewalle C, Chernova T, Sayan AE, Berx G, Mellon JK, Tulchinsky E
Mol Biol Cell
Cancer Research/Cell Biology
Cells used in publication:
Tissue Origin: uterus
Zinc finger transcription factors of the Snail/Slug and ZEB-1/SIP1 families control epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in development in cancer. Here, we studied SIP1-regulated mesenchymal conversion of epidermoid A431 cells. We found that concomitant with inducing invasive phenotype, SIP1 inhibited expression of cyclin D1 and induced hypophosphorylation of the Rb tumor suppressor protein. Repression of cyclin D1 was caused by direct binding of SIP1 to three sequence elements in the cyclin D1 gene promoter. By expressing exogenous cyclin D1 in A431/SIP1 cells and using RNA interference we demonstrated that the repression of cyclin D1 gene by SIP1 was necessary and sufficient for Rb hypophosphorylation and accumulation of cells in G1 phase. A431 cells expressing SIP1 along with exogenous cyclin D1 were highly invasive indicating that SIP1-regulated invasion is independent of attenuation of G1/S progression. However, in another EMT model, gradual mesenchymal conversion of A431 cells induced by a dominant negative mutant of E-cadherin produced no effect on the cell cycle. We suggest that impaired G1/S phase progression is a general feature of cells that have undergone EMT induced by transcription factors of the Snail/Slug and ZEB-1/SIP1 families.
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