Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) act on collagens (C-P4Hs) and the oxygen-dependent degradation domains (ODDDs) of HIF-alpha subunits (HIF-P4Hs) leading to degradation of the latter. We report data on a human P4H possessing a transmembrane domain (P4H-TM). Its gene is also found in zebrafish but not in flies and nematodes. Its sequence resembles more closely those of the C-P4Hs than the HIF-P4Hs, but it lacks the peptide-substrate-binding domain of the C-P4Hs. P4H-TM levels in cultured cells are increased by hypoxia, and P4H-TM is N-glycosylated and is located in ER membranes with its catalytic site inside the lumen, a location differing from those of the HIF-P4Hs. Despite this, P4H-TM overexpression in cultured neuroblastoma cells reduced HIF-alpha ODDD reporter construct levels and its siRNA increased HIF-1alpha protein level, in the same way as those of HIF-P4Hs. Furthermore, recombinant P4H-TM hydroxylated the two critical prolines in HIF-1alpha ODDD in vitro, with a preference for the C-terminal proline, whereas it did not hydroxylate any prolines in recombinant type I procollagen chains.