Identification and modulation of a caveolae-dependent signal pathway that regulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in insulin-resistant adipocytes

Venugopal J, Hanashiro K, Yang ZZ and Nagamine Y
Source: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Publication Date: (2004)
Issue: 101(49): 17120-17125
Research Area:
Cancer Research/Cell Biology
Cells used in publication:
Species: mouse
Tissue Origin: embryo
Nucleofectorâ„¢ I/II/2b
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity-driven type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular complications. Here, we show that perturbation of caveolar microdomains leads to insulin resistance and concomitant up-regulation of PAI-1 in 3T3L1 adipocytes. We present several lines of evidence showing that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway negatively regulates PAI-1 gene expression. Insulin-induced PAI-1 gene expression is up-regulated by a specific inhibitor of PI3K. In addition, serum PAI-1 level is elevated in protein kinase Balpha-deficient mice, whereas it is reduced in p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1-deficient mice. The PI3K pathway phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein (pRB), known to release free E2 (adenoviral protein) factor (E2F), which we have previously demonstrated to be a transcriptional repressor of PAI-1 gene expression. Accordingly, cell-penetrating peptides that disrupt pRB-E2F interaction, and thereby release free E2F, are able to suppress PAI-1 levels that are elevated during insulin-resistant conditions. This study identifies a caveolar-dependent signal pathway that up-regulates PAI-1 in insulin-resistant adipocytes and proposes a previously undescribed pharmacological paradigm of disrupting pRB-E2F interaction to suppress PAI-1 levels.