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Cutting Edge: TGF-beta Induces a Regulatory Phenotype in CD4(+)CD25(-) T Cells through Foxp3 Induction and Down-Regulation of Smad7

CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells are a subpopulation of T lymphocytes of thymic origin. However, recent data suggest an alternative commitment of regulatory T cells in the periphery, although the precise mechanism is unknown. In the present work, we...
Authors: Fantini MC, Becker C, Monteleone G, Pallone F, Galle PR and Neurath MF

Human parvovirus B19 nonstructural protein (NS1) induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase

Human parvovirus B19 infects predominantly erythroid precursor cells, leading to inhibition of erythropoiesis. This erythroid cell damage is mediated by the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) through an apoptotic mechanism. We previously...
Authors: Morita E, Nakashima A, Asao H, Sato H and Sugamura K

JNK-dependent release of mitochondrial protein, SMAC during apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells

Smac, second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases, promotes apoptosis via activation of caspases. Previous studies have shown that c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved in regulating another mitochondrial protein, cytochrome c during...
Authors: Chauhan D, Li G, Hideshima T, Podar K, Mitsiades C, Midsiades N, Munshi N, Kharbanda S and Anderson...

Illegitimate WNT signaling promotes proliferation of multiple myeloma cells

The unrestrained growth of tumor cells is generally attributed to mutations in essential growth control genes, but tumor cells are also influenced by signals from the environment. In multiple myeloma (MM), the factors and signals coming from the bone...
Authors: Derksen PWB, Tjin E, Meijer HP, Klok MD, Mac Gillavry HD, van Oers MHJ, Lokhorst HM, Bloem AC,...

Brain development in mice lacking L1-L1 homophilic adhesion

A new mouse line has been produced in which the sixth Ig domain of the L1 cell adhesion molecule has been deleted. Despite the rather large deletion, L1 expression is preserved at normal levels. In vitro experiments showed that L1-L1 homophilic...
Authors: Itoh K, Cheng L, Kamei Y, Fushiki S, Kamiguchi H, Gutwein P, Stoeck A, Arnold B, Altevogt P and...

Pericyte-specific expression of RGs5: implications for PDGF and EDG receptor signaling during vascular maturation

RGS proteins finely tune heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. Implying the need for such fine-tuning in the developing vascular system, in situ hybridization revealed a striking and extensive expression pattern of Rgs5 in the arterial walls of...
Authors: Cho H, Kozasa T, Bondjers C, Betsholtz C and Kehrl JH

Targeted deletion of BMK1/ERK5 in adult mice perturbs vascular integrity and leads to endothelial failure

Big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (BMK1), also known as ERK5, is a member of the MAPK family. Genetic ablation of BMK1 in mice leads to embryonic lethality, precluding the exploration of pathophysiological roles of BMK1 in adult mice. We...
Authors: Hayashi M, Kim SW, Imanaka-Yoshida K, Yoshida T, Abel ED, Eliceiri B, Yang Y, Ulevitch RJ and Lee...

YY1 transcription factor down-regulates expression of CCR5, a major co-receptor for HIV-1

Expression of CCR5, a major coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is regulated by a number of transcription factors. Here we report that the YY1 transcription factor down-regulates CCR5 promoter activity and that overexpression...
Authors: Moriuchi M and Moriuchi H

Pleiotropic defects in lymphocyte activation caused by caspase-8 mutations lead to human immunodeficiency

Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that is controlled by aspartate-specific cysteine proteases called caspases. In the immune system, apoptosis counters the proliferation of lymphocytes to achieve a homeostatic balance, which allows potent...
Authors: Chun HJ, Zheng L, Ahmad M, Wang J, Speirs CK, Siegel RM, Dale JK, Puck J, Davis J, Hall CG,...
SST Peer Reviewed

Overexpression of c-maf is a frequent oncogenic event in multiple myeloma that promotes proliferation and pathological interactions with bone marrow stroma

The oncogene c-maf is translocated in approximately 5%-10% of multiple myelomas. Unexpectedly, we observed c-maf expression in myeloma cell lines lacking c-maf translocations and in 50% of multiple myeloma bone marrow samples. By gene expression...
Authors: Hurt EM, Wiestner A, Rosenwald A, Shaffer AL, Campo E, Grogan T, Bergsagel PL, Kuehl WM and Staudt...
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