p38 MAPK inhibition enhances PS-341 (bortezomib)-induced cytotoxicity against multiple myeloma cells

Authors:
Hideshima T, Podar K, Chauhan D, Ishitsuka K, Mitsiades C, Tai YT, Hamasaki M, Raje N, Hideshima H, Schreiner G, Nguyen AN, Navas T, Munshi NC, Richardson PG, Higgins LS and Anderson KC
In:
Oncogene (2004) 23(54): 8766-8776
Research Area:
Cancer Research/Cell Biology
Cells used in publication:
MM.1S
Species: human
Tissue Origin: blood
Platform:
Nucleofectorâ„¢ I/II/2b
Abstract
Although PS-341 (bortezomib) is a promising agent to improve multiple myeloma (MM) patient outcome, 65% of patients with relapsed and refractory disease do not respond. We have previously shown that heat shock protein (Hsp)27 is upregulated after PS-341 treatment, that overexpression of Hsp27 confers PS-341 resistance, and that inhibition of Hsp27 overcomes PS-341 resistance. Since Hsp27 is a downstream target of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK-mitogen-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK2), we hypothesized that inhibition of p38 MAPK activity could augment PS-341 cytotoxicity by downregulating Hsp27. Although p38 MAPK inhibitor SCIO-469 (Scios Inc, CA, USA) alone did not induce significant growth inhibition, it blocked baseline and PS-341-triggered phosphorylation of p38 MAPK as well as upregulation of Hsp27, associated with enhanced cytotoxicity in MM.1S cells. Importantly, SCIO-469 enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and augmented cleavage of caspase-8 and poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. Moreover, SCIO-469 downregulated PS-341-induced increases in G2/M-phase cells, associated with downregulation of p21Cip1 expression. Importantly, SCIO-469 treatment augmented cytotoxicity of PS-341 even against PS-341-resistant cell lines and patient MM cells. These studies therefore provide the framework for clinical trials of SCIO-469 to enhance sensitivity and overcome resistance to PS-341, thereby improving patient outcome in MM.